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Caffeine (also spelled caffein) is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that is a psychoactive stimulant. Caffeine was isolated from coffee in 1820 by a German chemist, [Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge [1], and in 1821 by French chemists working independently; viz., by Pierre Jean Robiquet [2], and by Pierre Joseph Pelletier [3] and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou [4]. It was Pelletier, noting that the drug had been isolated from coffee (French: café), who coined the word "cafeine", which became the English word "caffeine".


3-D molecule

In Coffee[]

Caffeine content in coffee varies widely depending on the type of coffee bean and the method of preparation used; even beans within a given bush can show variations in concentration. In general, one serving of coffee ranges from 80–100 milligrams, for a single shot (30 milliliters) of arabica-variety, to approximately 100–125 milligrams for a cup (120 milliliters) of drip coffee.

In general, dark-roast coffee has less caffeine than lighter roasts because the roasting process reduces the bean's caffeine content.

Arabica coffee normally contains less caffeine than the robusta variety. Coffee also contains trace amounts of theophylline, but no theobromine; both, like caffeine itself, are xanthine stimulants.